Buildings provide a warm, sheltered, and occasionally moist environment for a variety of living organisms. In addition, the building, its contents or its occupants may also provide a supply of food. Pest organisms can cause damage to buildings and/or inconvenience to building occupants. Pests range from deathwatch beetle to cluster flies, from feral cats to fungi, and from the Greater Spotted Woodpecker to the more infamous Lesser Spotted Lead Nicker. In most cases, exclusion and environmental control are preferred methods of dealing with the problem. Occasionally, more drastic measures may need to be taken. Legal restrictions (Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and other legislation) should be borne in mind as well as the need to protect the health of building occupants. H+R can advise further if required.